Par la suite, le terme « basilique » a aussi désigné une église catholique distinguée par le pape, parce qu'elle était le lieu d'un pèlerinage. [6] Beginning with Cato in the early second century BC, politicians of the Roman Republic competed with one another by building basilicas bearing their names in the Forum Romanum, the centre of ancient Rome. [24] This basilica, begun in 313, was the first imperial Christian basilica. [65] According to Ahudemmeh's biographer this basilica and its martyrium, in the upper Tigris valley, was supposed to be a copy of the Basilica of St Sergius at Sergiopolis (Resafa), in the middle Euphrates, so that the Arabs would not have to travel so far on pilgrimage. Certaines stoae ont acquis une spécialisation fonctionnelle avec le temps, comme la stoa basileios d'Athènes qui devient le siège de l'archonte roi. EMBED (for hosted blogs and item tags) Want more? [3] Thereafter until the 4th century AD, monumental basilicas were routinely constructed at Rome by both private citizens and the emperors. [24] Above an originally 1st century AD villa and its later adjoining warehouse and Mithraeum, a large basilica church had been erected by 350, subsuming the earlier structures beneath it as a crypt. An American church built imitating the architecture of an Early Christian basilica, St. Mary's (German) Church in Pennsylvania, was demolished in 1997. Or Sign up/login to Reverso account Kollaboratives Wörterbuch Französisch-Englisch. Elle est l'église principale du Catholicisme, son centre spirituel et aussi la plus grande. [2] After the construction of Cato the Elder's basilica, the term came to be applied to any large covered hall, whether it was used for domestic purposes, was a commercial space, a military structure, or religious building. A peculiar type of basilica, known as three-church basilica, was developed in early medieval Georgia, characterised by the central nave which is completely separated from the aisles with solid walls.[70]. [23] The mosaics of the floor credit Optimus, the bishop, with its dedication. [25] As with most Justinianic baptisteries in the Balkans and Asia Minor, the baptistery at the Basilica of St John was on the northern side of the basilica's nave; the 734 m2 baptistery was separated from the basilica by a 3 m-wide corridor. Chef d'oeuvre de la Renaissance et du Baroque, elle représente le renouveau de la Ville Eternelle. Ce premier édifice, daté de la toute fin du IIIe siècle av. Après une brève visite à l'Appartement Pontifical, le Saint-Père a rencontré le Clergé de Rome réuni dans la Basilique … EMBED. [12] The smallest known basilica in Britain was built by the Silures at Caerwent and measured 180 by 100 feet (55 m × 30 m). Free 2-day shipping. De Basiliek van Koekelberg is de vijfde grootste kerk ter wereld. [24] A number of buildings previously believed to have been Constantinian or 4th century have been reassessed as dating to later periods, and certain examples of 4th century basilicas are not distributed throughout the Mediterranean world at all evenly. [58] Crete was throughout Late Antiquity a province of the Diocese of Macedonia, governed from Thessaloniki. [24] Similarly, the name and association resounded with the Christian claims of the royalty of Christ – according to the Acts of the Apostles the earliest Christians had gathered at the royal Stoa of Solomon in Jerusalem to assert Jesus's royal heritage. [24] Similarly, at Santi Giovanni e Paolo al Celio, an entire ancient city block – a 2nd-century insula on the Caelian Hill – was buried beneath a 4th-century basilica. [64] The basilicas were associated with cemeteries with Christian inscriptions and burials. [59], Stobi, (Ancient Greek: Στόβοι, romanized: Stóboi) the capital from the late 4th century of the province of Macedonia II Salutaris, had numerous basilicas and six palaces in late antiquity. In the Roman Imperial period (after about 27 BC), a basilica for large audiences also became a feature in palaces. [64] This basilica was the cathedral of Serdica and was one of three basilicas known to lie outside the walls; three more churches were within the walled city, of which the Church of Saint George was a former Roman bath built in the 4th century, and another was a former Mithraeum. The marble was especially valuable in the medieval and early modern eras for burning into lime, a material used to make mortar. [6] At Volubilis, principal city of Mauretania Tingitana, a basilica modelled on Leptis Magna's was completed during the short reign of Macrinus. [23] Development of pottery chronologies for Late Antiquity had helped resolve questions of dating basilicas of the period. [65] After being mentioned in 828 and 936, the basilica at ʿAin Qenoye disappeared from recorded history, though it may have remained occupied for centuries, and was rediscovered as a ruin by Carsten Niebuhr in 1766. Espaces architecturaux, bâtiments et ensembles, Portail de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme,, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. [3] On the exterior, Constantine's palatine basilica was plain and utilitarian, but inside was very grandly decorated. [26] The basilica at Ephesus's Magnesian Gate, the episcopal church at Laodicea on the Lycus, and two extramural churches at Sardis have all been considered 4th century constructions, but on weak evidence. [24] Known as the Megiddo church, it was built at Kefar 'Othnay in Palestine, possibly c. 230, for or by the Roman army stationed at Legio (later Lajjun). [33] The function of Christian churches was similar to that of the civic basilicas but very different from temples in contemporary Graeco-Roman polytheism: while pagan temples were entered mainly by priests and thus had their splendour visible from without, within Christian basilicas the main ornamentation was visible to the congregants admitted inside. A private basilica excavated at Bulla Regia (Tunisia), in the "House of the Hunt", dates from the first half of the 5th century. [23] Traditional civic basilicas and bouleuteria declined in use with the weakening of the curial class (Latin: curiales) in the 4th and 5th centuries, while their structures were well suited to the requirements of congregational liturgies. [23] Traditional monumental civic amenities like gymnasia, palaestrae, and thermae were also falling into disuse, and became favoured sites for the construction of new churches, including basilicas. J.-C. ne porte pas de nom et est simplement baptisé basilica par les auteurs antiques[2],[a 2]. [23] Optimus was the city's delegate at the First Council of Constantinople in 381, so the 70 m-long single-apsed basilica near the city walls must have been constructed around that time. This designation may be made by the Pope or may date from time immemorial. Basilica church of the Monastery of Stoudios, Constantinple, 5th century, as depicted in the Menologion of Basil II, c. 1000. [34], In the reign of Constantine I, a basilica was constructed for the Pope in the former barracks of the Equites singulares Augusti, the cavalry arm of the Praetorian Guard. For the designation "basilica" in canon law, see, The title of minor basilicas was first attributed to the church of, Architecture of cathedrals and great churches, "The Institute for Sacred Architecture – Articles – The Eschatological Dimension of Church Architecture", "New Testament Archaeology Beyond the Gospels", "The Remains of London's Roman Basilica and Forum", "Opus reticulatum panels in the Severan Basilica at Lepcis Magna", "Baptisteries in Ancient Sites and Rites", "The Archaeology of Early Christianity: The History, Methods, and State of a Field", "Hydraulic capacity of ancient water conveyance systems to Ephesus", Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador,, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Basilica Porcia: first basilica built in Rome (184 BC), erected on the personal initiative and financing of the censor Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Elder) as an official building for the, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 21:26. Poursuivez jusqu'à la Basilique Saint Jean de Latran (San Giovanni in Laterano), cathédrale de Rome. [45][46] Subsequently, Asterius's sermon On the Martyrdom of St Euphemia was advanced as an argument for iconodulism at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. Preface par Émile Mâle. [53] In the 5th century, basilicas with two apses, multiple aisles, and doubled churches were common, including examples respectively at Sufetula, Tipasa, and Djémila. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema S Basilica sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. J.-C., donne une liste de onze basiliques pour la ville de Rome[a 3],[9]. [16] Also known as the Basilica Constantiniana, 'Basilica of Constantine' or Basilica Nova, 'New Basilica', it chanced to be the last civic basilica built in Rome. [3], Beginning with the Forum of Caesar (Latin: forum Iulium) at the end of the Roman Republic, the centre of Rome was embellished with a series of imperial fora typified by a large open space surrounded by a peristyle, honorific statues of the imperial family (gens), and a basilica, often accompanied by other facilities like a temple, market halls and public libraries. [38] The church was restored under the patronage of the patricia and daughter of Olybrius, Anicia Juliana. [13] Only the later basilica-forum complex at Treverorum was larger, while at Rome only the 525 foot (160 m) Basilica Ulpia exceeded London's in size. [31] Another, shallower apse with niches for statues was added to the centre of the north wall in a second campaign of building, while the western apse housed a colossal acrolithic statue of the emperor Constantine enthroned. [51], The largest and oldest basilica churches in Egypt were at Pbow, a coenobitic monastery established by Pachomius the Great in 330. Le plan de la basilique civile romaine a servi de modèle à la fin de l'Antiquité pour la construction des premières églises chrétiennes, d'où l'utilisation du terme « basilique » pour désigner certaines églises depuis l'époque de Constantin. Papst war, wurde Antonio Maria Traversi nach Rom gerufen, wo er 1833 Kanoniker der päpstlichen Basilika Santa Maria Maggiore und Päpstlicher Hausprälat wurde. [48][23] The Justinianic basilica replaced an earlier, smaller structure which Egeria had planned to visit in the 4th century, and remains of a 2,130 foot (650 m) aqueduct branch built to supply the complex with water probably dates from Justinian's reign. [48] Somewhat outside the ancient city on the hill of Selçuk, the Justinianic basilica became the centre of the city after the 7th century Arab–Byzantine wars. [12], When Londinium became a colonia, the whole city was re-planned and a new great forum-basilica complex erected, larger than any in Britain. The result is a much darker interior. [3] Domitian constructed a basilica on the Palatine Hill for his imperial residential complex around 92 AD, and a palatine basilica was typical in imperial palaces throughout the imperial period. [39] The Council of Chalcedon (8–31 October 451) was held in the basilica, which must have been large enough to accommodate the more than two hundred bishops that attneded its third session, together with their translators and servants; around 350 bishops attended the Council in all. [4][5] The Roman basilica was a large public building where business or legal matters could be transacted. [2] At Sardis, a monumental basilica housed the city's synagogue, serving the local Jewish diaspora. [33] The nave would be kept clear for liturgical processions by the clergy, with the laity in the galleries and aisles to either side. Outside the defensive wall was Basilica D, a 7th-century cemetery church. [54] The Council of 410 stipulated that on Sunday the archdeacon would read the Gospels from the bema. It continues to be used in an architectural sense to describe rectangular buildings with a central nave and aisles, and usually a raised platform at the opposite end from the door. [65] More likely, with the support of Khosrow I for its construction and defence against the Nestorians who were Miaphysites' rivals, the basilica was part of an attempt to control the frontier tribes and limit their contact with the Roman territory of Justinian, who had agreed in the 562 Fifty-Year Peace Treaty to pay 30,000 nomismata annually to Khosrow in return for a demilitarization of the frontier after the latest phase of the Roman–Persian Wars. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town, usually adjacent to the forum and often opposite a temple in imperial-era forums. [3] Provinces in the west lacked this tradition, and the basilicas the Romans commissioned there were more typically Italian, with the central nave divided from the side-aisles by an internal colonnade in regular proportions. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 7 novembre 2020 à 11:23. An apse at one end, or less frequently at both ends or on the side, usually contained the raised tribunal occupied by the Roman magistrates. [35], The original titular churches of Rome were those which had been private residences and which were donated to be converted to places of Christian worship. On the day of the. Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe near Ravenna in Italy. [23] The Great Basilica in Antioch of Pisidia is a rare securely dated 4th century Christian basilica and was the city's cathedral church. Basiliques mineures. [citation needed], After its destruction in 60 AD, Londinium (London) was endowed with its first forum and basilica under the Flavian dynasty. [38] From the description of Evagrius Scholasticus the church is identifiable as an aisled basilica attached to the martyrium and preceded by an atrium. > Basilique de Saint Pierre de Rome - Image de Ωméga * @ Flick ; Il raconte: « La restauration de la grande coupole de la basilique Saint-Pierre, en particulier le tambour, a commencé le 2 septembre 2019 avec le montage de l'échafaudage. Si nous n'avons pas les mêmes richesses, nous avons la même patrie qu'eux. [38] The basilica already existed when Egeria passed through Chalcedon in 384, and in 436 Melania the Younger visited the church on her own journey to the Holy Land. [15][3] It was an especially grand example whose particular symmetrical arrangement with an apse at both ends was repeated in the provinces as a characteristic form. [28], The magnificence of early Christian basilicas reflected the patronage of the emperor and recalled his imperial palaces and reflected the royal associations of the basilica with the Hellenistic Kingdoms and even earlier monarchies like that of Pharaonic Egypt.