[529] Roosevelt and Churchill also agreed to Stalin's demand that the German city of Königsberg be declared Soviet territory. Initially Stalin refused to repeal the Sino-Soviet Treaty of 1945, which significantly benefited the Soviet Union over China, although in January 1950 he relented and agreed to sign a new treaty between the two countries. When the Israeli ambassador Golda Meir arrived in the USSR, Stalin was angered by the Jewish crowds who gathered to greet her. [357], Stalin desired a "cultural revolution",[358] entailing both the creation of a culture for the "masses" and the wider dissemination of previously elite culture. [655] According to Svetlana, it had been "a difficult and terrible death". [439], Stalin initiated all key decisions during the Terror, personally directing many of its operations and taking an interest in their implementation. [679] Stalin believed in the need to adapt Marxism to changing circumstances; in 1917, he declared that "there is dogmatic Marxism and there is creative Marxism. [104] In Baku he had reassembled his gang, the Outfit,[105] which continued to attack Black Hundreds and raised finances by running protection rackets, counterfeiting currency, and carrying out robberies. [496] Responding to the invasion, the Soviets intensified their industrial enterprises in central Russia, focusing almost entirely on production for the military. [556] Various East European communists also visited Stalin in Moscow. [243] In taking this view, some Marxists accused him of bending too much to bourgeois nationalism, while others accused him of remaining too Russocentric by seeking to retain these nations within the Russian state. 270, Stalin commanded soldiers risking capture to fight to the death describing the captured as traitors;[493] among those taken as a prisoner of war by the Germans was Stalin's son Yakov, who died in their custody. [414] This mixed approach began to change in December 1934, after prominent party member Sergey Kirov was murdered. [748] He often dined with other Politburo members and their families. [937] In a 2016 Kyiv International Institute of Sociology poll, 38% of respondents had a negative attitude to Stalin, 26% a neutral one and 17% a positive, with 19% refusing to answer. [262] The USSR's formation was ratified in December 1922; although officially a federal system, all major decisions were taken by the governing Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in Moscow. [119] Shortly after the conference, Lenin and Grigory Zinoviev decided to co-opt Stalin to the committee. [886] During Stalin's lifetime, his approved biographies were largely hagiographic in content. [619] With this accomplished, Marxist governments now controlled a third of the world's land mass. [279] Stalin also developed close relations with the trio at the heart of the secret police (first the Cheka and then its replacement, the State Political Directorate): Felix Dzerzhinsky, Genrikh Yagoda, and Vyacheslav Menzhinsky. We must close that gap in ten years. [176] Although he had been tasked with briefing the Bolshevik delegates of the Second Congress of Soviets about the developing situation, Stalin's role in the coup had not been publicly visible. [292] In 1925, the two moved into open opposition to Stalin and Bukharin. [576], Stalin's health was deteriorating, and heart problems forced a two-month vacation in the latter part of 1945. [714] He was of the view that if they became fully autonomous, then they would end up being controlled by the most reactionary elements of their community; as an example he cited the largely illiterate Tatars, whom he claimed would end up dominated by their mullahs. [42] At night, he attended secret workers' meetings[43] and was introduced to Silibistro "Silva" Jibladze, the Marxist founder of Mesame Dasi ("Third Group"), a Georgian socialist group. By 1932, about 62% of households involved in agriculture were part of collectives, and by 1936 this had risen to 90%. "Joseph Stalin: National hero or cold-blooded murderer? [611] At the second Cominform conference, held in Bucharest in June 1948, East European communist leaders all denounced Tito's government, accusing them of being fascists and agents of Western capitalism. [14] Besarion became an alcoholic[15] and drunkenly beat his wife and son. [651] He had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage. [432] During these years, approximately 1.6 million people were arrested,[433] 700,000 were shot, and an unknown number died under NKVD torture. [144] Stalin retained the name for the rest of his life, possibly because it was used on the article that established his reputation among the Bolsheviks. [510] This resulted in the protracted Battle of Stalingrad. He went on to edit the party's newspaper, Pravda, and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings and protection rackets. [242], Stalin's native Caucasus posed a particular problem because of its highly multi-ethnic mix. [271] To bolster his image as a devoted Leninist, Stalin gave nine lectures at Sverdlov University on the "Foundations of Leninism", later published in book form. [109] There he led the imprisoned Bolsheviks, organised discussion groups, and ordered the killing of suspected informants. [210] In Tsaritsyn, Stalin commanded the local Cheka branch to execute suspected counter-revolutionaries, sometimes without trial[211] and—in contravention of government orders—purged the military and food collection agencies of middle-class specialists, some of whom he also executed. [531] Discussing the fate of the Balkans, later in 1944 Churchill agreed to Stalin's suggestion that after the war, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and Yugoslavia would come under the Soviet sphere of influence while Greece would come under that of the West. [875] Montefiore argued that while Stalin initially ruled as part of a Communist Party oligarchy, in 1934 the Soviet government transformed from this oligarchy into a personal dictatorship,[876] with Stalin only becoming "absolute dictator" between March and June 1937, when senior military and NKVD figures were eliminated. [234] Stalin felt humiliated and under-appreciated; on 17 August, he demanded demission from the military, which was granted on 1 September. [159] Stalin was in the city when the February Revolution took place; uprisings broke out in Petrograd—as Saint Petersburg had been renamed—and Tsar Nicholas II abdicated to escape being violently overthrown. [410] Germany and Italy backed the Nationalist faction, which was ultimately victorious in March 1939. C’était maintenant au tour de la Pologne - et Hitler avait cruellement besoin d’une garantie que l’URSSn’attaquerait pas l’Allemag… [624] North Korean leader Kim Il-sung visited Stalin in March 1949 and again in March 1950; he wanted to invade the south and although Stalin was initially reluctant to provide support, he eventually agreed by May 1950. [294] In mid-1926, Kamenev and Zinoviev joined with Trotsky's supporters to form the United Opposition against Stalin;[295] in October they agreed to stop factional activity under threat of expulsion, and later publicly recanted their views under Stalin's command. [283] Stalin saw Trotsky—whom he personally despised[284]—as the main obstacle to his dominance within the party. [197] His department allocated funds for the establishment of presses and schools in the languages of various ethnic minorities. [368] Through the Communist International, Stalin's government exerted a strong influence over Marxist parties elsewhere in the world;[369] initially, Stalin left the running of the organisation largely to Bukharin. [502] The Internationale was dropped as the country's national anthem, to be replaced with a more patriotic song. After the heist, Stalin settled in Baku with his wife and son. I saw the other side as well – his high intelligence, that fantastic grasp of detail, his shrewdness and his surprising human sensitivity that he was capable of showing, at least in the war years. [237] Lenin joined Trotsky in criticizing him, and nobody spoke on his behalf at the conference. Around 40 people were killed, but all of his gang escaped alive. [564], Despite his strengthened international position, Stalin was cautious about internal dissent and desire for change among the population. [394] Grain exports, which were a major means of Soviet payment for machinery, declined heavily. [221] By that time, Sovnarkom had turned its attention to spreading proletarian revolution abroad, to this end forming the Communist International in March 1919; Stalin attended its inaugural ceremony. [352] Many religious buildings were demolished, most notably Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, destroyed in 1931 to make way for the (never completed) Palace of the Soviets. [538] Roosevelt and Churchill conceded to Stalin's demand that Germany pay the Soviet Union 20 billion dollars in reparations, and that his country be permitted to annex Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in exchange for entering the war against Japan. Staline, qui s'inquiète de la puissance de Beria, décide en 1946 une profonde réorganisation de la police politique, des services secrets et de l’administration du Goulag. [400] By 1938, Stalin's inner circle had gained a degree of stability, containing the personalities who would remain there until Stalin's death. [702] In his words, "the people need a Tsar, whom they can worship and for whom they can live and work". [848] Stalin regarded Vasily as spoiled and often chastised his behaviour; as Stalin's son, Vasily nevertheless was swiftly promoted through the ranks of the Red Army and allowed a lavish lifestyle. [299] Some of those United Opposition members who were repentant were later rehabilitated and returned to government. [30] He continued writing poetry; five of his poems, on themes such as nature, land and patriotism, were published under the pseudonym of "Soselo" in Ilia Chavchavadze's newspaper Iveria ('Georgia'). [492] With Order No. [915] He repeated these denunciations at the 22nd Party Congress in October 1962. [542] Although concealing his desires from the other Allied leaders, Stalin placed great emphasis on capturing Berlin first, believing that this would enable him to bring more of Europe under long-term Soviet control. [51] Remaining underground, he helped plan a demonstration for May Day 1901, in which 3,000 marchers clashed with the authorities. [903], Historians continue to debate whether or not the 1932–33 Ukrainian famine—known in Ukraine as the Holodomor—should be called a genocide. [470] The Soviets sought to forestall dissent in these new East European territories with mass repressions. [465], The Soviets further demanded parts of eastern Finland, but the Finnish government refused. [595] It launched the Marshall Plan in June 1947, with which it sought to undermine Soviet hegemony in eastern Europe. [715] According to Khlevniuk, Stalin reconciled Marxism with great-power imperialism and therefore expansion of the empire makes him a worthy to the Russian tsars. Sous le prétexte d'augmenter le rôle de Beria, Staline le nomme coordinateur de l'ensemble des services liés à la sûreté de l'État ; symboliquement il le nomme en outre vice-Premier ministre (vice-président du Sovnarkom ). [339] In 1928, the first five-year plan was launched, its main focus on boosting heavy industry;[340] it was finished a year ahead of schedule, in 1932. [568], The NKVD were ordered to catalogue the scale of destruction during the war. [135] Lenin, who encouraged Stalin to write an article on the subject,[136] wanted to attract those groups to the Bolshevik cause by offering them the right of secession from the Russian state, but also hoped they would remain part of a future Bolshevik-governed Russia. This interpretation has been rejected by more recent historical studies. [717], Ethnically Georgian,[719] Stalin grew up speaking the Georgian language,[720] and did not begin learning Russian until the age of eight or nine. [661] Crowds were such that a crush killed about 100 people. [17] In 1886, they moved into the house of a family friend, Father Christopher Charkviani. Quiconque s’opposant à lui, passe devant un tribunal improvisé, Troïka, et est exécuté ou envoyé en Sibérie dans les goulags. [582], In the post-war period there were often food shortages in Soviet cities,[583] and the USSR experienced a major famine from 1946 to 1947. [916] In October 1961, Stalin's body was removed from the mausoleum and buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis next to the Kremlin walls, the location marked only by a simple bust. [181] Stalin backed Lenin's decision not to form a coalition with the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionary Party, although they did form a coalition government with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries. [700] After Lenin's death, Stalin relied heavily on Lenin's writings—far more so than those of Marx and Engels—to guide him in the affairs of state. [337] In November 1929 Stalin removed him from the Politburo. [621] In December 1949, Mao visited Stalin. [712] Ultimately he believed that all nations would merge into a single, global human community,[712] and regarded all nations as inherently equal. [594], The US began pushing its interests on every continent, acquiring air force bases in Africa and Asia and ensuring pro-U.S. regimes took power across Latin America. [296] The factionalist arguments continued, with Stalin threatening to resign in October and then December 1926 and again in December 1927. [604] [407] In turn, the anti-communist governments of Germany, Fascist Italy and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1936. [53] In November 1901, he was elected to the Tiflis Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), a Marxist party founded in 1898. [541] The Red Army withheld assistance to Polish resistance fighters battling the Germans in the Warsaw Uprising, with Stalin believing that any victorious Polish militants could interfere with his aspirations to dominate Poland through a future Marxist government. [735] To appear taller, he wore stacked shoes, and stood on a small platform during parades. [527] There, Stalin and Roosevelt got on well, with both desiring the post-war dismantling of the British Empire. [291], In late 1924, Stalin moved against Kamenev and Zinoviev, removing their supporters from key positions. [175] A Bolshevik-controlled ship, the Aurora, opened fire on the Winter Palace; the Provisional Government's assembled delegates surrendered and were arrested by the Bolsheviks. Some of the photos may be from earlier dates, but it is believed that this photo of Stalin was taken in 1893. [530] Stalin insisted that, after the war, the Soviet Union should incorporate the portions of Poland it occupied pursuant to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Germany, which Churchill opposed. [403] Stalin admired Hitler, particularly his manoeuvres to remove rivals within the Nazi Party in the Night of the Long Knives. [93] In March 1907 she bore a son, Yakov. Through the Five-Year Plans, the country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialisation, creating a centralised command economy. [557] Still, Stalin foresaw the undesirability of a nuclear conflict, saying in 1949 that "atomic weapons can hardly be used without spelling the end of the world. [606], Churchill observed that an "Iron Curtain" had been drawn across Europe, separating the east from the west. [928][929][930] At the same time, there was a growth in pro-Stalinist literature in Russia, much relying upon the misrepresentation or fabrication of source material. [191] Unlike senior Bolsheviks like Kamenev and Nikolai Bukharin, Stalin never expressed concern about the rapid growth and expansion of the Cheka and Red Terror. [112] In March 1910, he was arrested again and sent back to Solvychegodsk. [302] Other important supporters on the Politburo were Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich, and Sergo Ordzhonikidze,[303] with Stalin ensuring his allies ran the various state institutions. [723] According to Montefiore, despite Stalin's affinity for Russia and Russians, he remained profoundly Georgian in his lifestyle and personality. [749] As leader, he rarely left Moscow unless to go to one of his dachas;[750] he disliked travel,[751] and refused to travel by plane. [807] He favoured the Western genre;[808] his favourite film was the 1938 picture Volga Volga. [64] There, he lived in a two-room peasant's house, sleeping in the building's larder. [557] Within the Soviet Union he was widely regarded as the embodiment of victory and patriotism. [612] Stalin ordered several assassination attempts on Tito's life and contemplated invading Yugoslavia. [793], — U.S. ambassador W. Averell Harriman[794], Keenly interested in the arts,[795] Stalin admired artistic talent. [609] Stalin had a particularly strained relationship with Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito due to the latter's continued calls for Balkan federation and for Soviet aid for the communist forces in the ongoing Greek Civil War. [351] From 1929 to 1930, further show trials were held to intimidate opposition:[352] these included the Industrial Party Trial, Menshevik Trial, and Metro-Vickers Trial. [826], Friendship was important to Stalin,[827] and he used it to gain and maintain power. [708] He first developed the idea in December 1924 and elaborated upon in his writings of 1925–26. Joseph Staline s'était éteint durant la nuit. [86] At the conference Stalin met Lenin for the first time. [54], That month, Stalin travelled to the port city of Batumi. [693] In his book, Foundations of Leninism, he stated that "Leninism is the Marxism of the epoch of imperialism and of the proletarian revolution". [667] The system of collective leadership was restored, and measures introduced to prevent any one member attaining autocratic domination again. [90] Lenin and Stalin disagreed with this decision[91] and later privately discussed how they could continue the robberies for the Bolshevik cause. [924] He remains a revered figure among many Russian nationalists, who feel nostalgic about the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War II,[925] and he is regularly invoked approvingly within both Russia's far-left and far-right. [812] When at social events, he encouraged singing,[813] as well as alcohol consumption; he hoped that others would drunkenly reveal their secrets to him. [459] In August 1939, the Soviet Union signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact with Germany, a non-aggression pact negotiated by Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. [670] Economic reform scaled back the mass construction projects, placed a new emphasis on house building, and eased the levels of taxation on the peasantry to stimulate production. [657] It is possible that Stalin was murdered. [145], In February 1913, Stalin was arrested while back in Saint Petersburg. Toute activité de la société est contrôlée par l’État et toute opposition à cet État est éliminée. To ask other readers questions about La mort de Staline, Tome 1 , please sign up. [374] In November 1932, after a group dinner in the Kremlin in which Stalin flirted with other women, Nadya shot herself. [698] Stalin biographer Oleg Khlevniuk nevertheless believed that the pair developed a "strong bond" over the years,[699] while Kotkin suggested that Stalin's friendship with Lenin was "the single most important relationship in Stalin's life". "[821] In 1946, Stalin allegedly said privately that "every Jew is a potential spy. [39] He also read Capital, the 1867 book by German sociological theorist Karl Marx. [610] In March 1948, Stalin launched an anti-Tito campaign, accusing the Yugoslav communists of adventurism and deviating from Marxist–Leninist doctrine. [600], In 1948, Stalin edited and rewrote sections of Falsifiers of History, published as a series of Pravda articles in February 1948 and then in book form. [94] By that year—according to the historian Robert Service—Stalin had established himself as "Georgia's leading Bolshevik". [522] There remained mutual suspicions between Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who were together known as the "Big Three". [842] Yakov had a daughter, Galina, before fighting for the Red Army in the Second World War. [505] Comintern was dissolved in 1943,[506] and Stalin encouraged foreign Marxist–Leninist parties to emphasise nationalism over internationalism to broaden their domestic appeal. [718] In both the Soviet Union and elsewhere he came to be portrayed as an "Oriental despot". [520] In 1941, the London Philharmonic Orchestra performed a concert to celebrate his birthday,[521] and in 1942, Time magazine named him "Man of the Year". [563] He was quoted in Pravda on a daily basis and pictures of him remained pervasive on the walls of workplaces and homes. [382] In 1936, Nikolai Yezhov became head of the NKVD. [513] The Soviet victory there marked a major turning point in the war;[514] in commemoration, Stalin declared himself Marshal of the Soviet Union. [701] Stalin adopted the Leninist view on the need for a revolutionary vanguard who could lead the proletariat rather than being led by them. [717] Montefiore thought Stalin's brutality marked him out as a "natural extremist";[792] Service suggested he had tendencies toward a paranoid and sociopathic personality disorder. [164] This reflected his senior standing in the party at the time. The US also offered financial assistance as part of the Marshall Plan on the condition that they opened their markets to trade, aware that the Soviets would never agree. [33] As he grew older, Stalin lost interest in priestly studies, his grades dropped,[34] and he was repeatedly confined to a cell for his rebellious behaviour. [119] Still in Vologda, Stalin agreed, remaining a Central Committee member for the rest of his life. [101] In August 1907, he attended the Seventh Congress of the Second International—an international socialist organisation—in Stuttgart, Germany. [110] He was eventually sentenced to two years exile in the village of Solvychegodsk, Vologda Province, arriving there in February 1909. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported European anti-fascist movements during the 1930s, particularly in the Spanish Civil War. [494] Stalin issued Order No. [457] In May 1939, Germany began negotiations with the Soviets, proposing that Eastern Europe be divided between the two powers. [265], Their differences also became personal; Lenin was particularly angered when Stalin was rude to his wife Krupskaya during a telephone conversation. Le premier ouvre de 4♠. [272] During the 13th Party Congress in May 1924, "Lenin's Testament" was read only to the leaders of the provincial delegations. Alors que son père cordonnier meurt dans une rixe en 1889, Joseph est envoyé au séminaire orthodoxede Tiflis (Tbilissi) à l'âge de quinze ans. [867] Under his rule, the average Soviet life expectancy grew due to improved living conditions, nutrition, and medical care;[868] mortality rates also declined. Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. [433] His personal writings from the period were — according to Khlevniuk — "unusually convoluted and incoherent", filled with claims about enemies encircling him. [376] Stalin's friends noted that he underwent a significant change following her suicide, becoming emotionally harder. [392] Stalin would not acknowledge that his policies had contributed to the famine,[381] the existence of which was kept secret from foreign observers. [186] Although not so publicly well known as Lenin or Trotsky,[187] Stalin's importance among the Bolsheviks grew. [886], Leninists remain divided in their views on Stalin; some view him as Lenin's authentic successor, while others believe he betrayed Lenin's ideas by deviating from them. [342] New mines were opened, new cities like Magnitogorsk constructed, and work on the White Sea-Baltic Canal begun. [771] Several historians have seen it appropriate to follow Lazar Kaganovich's description of there being "several Stalins" as a means of understanding his multi-faceted personality. [415] In September 1934, he launched a commission to investigate false imprisonments; that same month he called for the execution of workers at the Stalin Metallurgical Factory accused of spying for Japan. [557] [396] He declared that "socialism, which is the first phase of communism, has basically been achieved in this country". [762] According to biographer Montefiore, "it is clear from hostile and friendly witnesses alike that Stalin was always exceptional, even from childhood". Il y a déjà longtemps du vivant du camarade Staline, qu'elles ont été préparées avec lui par notre parti et par le gouvernement. [543] Many Soviet soldiers engaged in looting, pillaging, and rape, both in Germany and parts of Eastern Europe. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 3 juin 2020 à 02:28. [681] Volkogonov believed that Stalin's Marxism was shaped by his "dogmatic turn of mind", suggesting that this had been instilled in the Soviet leader during his education in religious institutions. [76] Stalin was in Baku in February when ethnic violence broke out between Armenians and Azeris; at least 2,000 were killed. [762] Stalin had a complex mind,[763] great self-control,[764] and an excellent memory. [756] After 1932, he favoured holidays in Abkhazia, being a friend of its leader, Nestor Lakoba. Le régime cherche à imposer son idéologie à l'ensemble de la société aussi bien dans la vie publique que privée.

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